Derived from the Greek word meaning "to perceive," aesthetics is the philosophy behind art.
seeks to formulate non-subjective laws and criteria to account for human perception of beauty and taste.
An alloy traditionally composed of copper and tin or nickel. Bronze is of exceptional historical interest and still finds wide applications. It is harder than copper, more fusible, and easier to cast. Today's bronze alloy is primarily more the 99% copper and the rest silicone.
Bronze sculptures are created through an INTENSE MULTISTEP PROCESS.
Peggy designs the original artwork in wax or clay, then, in order for Peggy to keep up with the demand for her work, she hands the completed original over to a mold maker. The mold is made in two halves first by coating one side of the original with rubber to pick up the detail then plaster to hold the shape. Then the other side is done. The original is removed, and a harder wax is poured into the mold which comes out of the mold hollow. Peggy takes over to re-detail the wax where bubbles may have formed and the seam line needs to be removed so the texture remains intact. Peggy then lets the foundry attach wax feeder and vent tubes to the cast wax, in a process called sprueing.
Then this sprued wax is dipped in a porcelin-silica slurry called
investment. After several dips and cures, the cement like investment shell is heated up, the wax is melted out, and F 2000 molten bronze is poured in the shell where the wax sculpture with its feeder and vent lines were. When the bronze cools, the shell is chiseled and sand blasted away, the now bronze feeder/vent lines are removed, and the bronze is once again put in Peggy's hands.
Peggy will re-detail the surface of the bronze where the sprues were and also where any faults in the metal were welded. After Peggy is happy that the metal looks like her original, she again sandblasts it, and heats it with a propane torch. The heat makes the metal more reactive to the metal acids that are brushed over the bronze to color it, and the piece is waxed while the bronze is still hot, completing it. Since this is the final artistic statement on the bronze, Peggy insists again on doing this phase herself.
This multistep procedure is called "lost wax" investment casting.
Successful sculptors are generally considered experts in the form, detail and behavior of their subject. This expertise is evident in their work, as the subject is recreated in a way that is both accurately portrayed and artistically as well as aesthetically appealing.
In the process of creating a bronze sculpture, a wax reproduction of the original clay sculpture is covered in a rock-hard ceramic casting shell or "investment." When the wax has been melted out, the shell will serve as a mold for the molten bronze. When the bronze has hardened the shell is carefully broken away and cleaned from the casting. Channels through which the bronze was poured, called "sprues," are cut off and all parts are sandblasted to prepare for reassembly.
A method of finishing bronze casts by removing small imperfections and smoothing rough spots. Often, the metal surfaces are embossed, hollowed, or engraved with steel tools to recreate the artist's subtle surface texture
Cold Cast Bronze Very different from the bronze casting method above. A slurry of plaster or resin has bronze powder or flakes added to it, and this material is poured into a mold. These casts come out solid rather than hollow like the fine art cast do. No metal is heated and MANY steps are avoided. These castings are usually mass produced and don't appreciate in value like museum quality lost wax castings do.
The process of dewaxing a cast of a sculpture best defines the term "lost wax" casting. This occurs when the dried ceramic shell, still containing the wax pattern, is placed with its opening down into a hot kiln. As the temperature rises, the wax melts and flows out of the shell leaving a cavity in the form of the artwork
The total number of prints produced from a single master comprises an edition.
Describes the categories of art works that are traditionally considered aesthetically significant. They include architecture, painting, sculpture and many of the graphic arts and are contrasted with decorative and applied art, in which function is as important as aesthetic considerations.
The finished wax version of a sculpture is prepared for ceramic investment by attaching a plumbing system of wax called "gates" or "sprues." The gates and sprues form the channels through which the melted bronze will travel to the artwork. Later in the casting process, the space occupied by the gates and sprues become runways through which the metal flows and trapped gas escapes.
Investment is the process of building a ceramic shell around a wax replica of an original clay sculpture by dipping the sculpture into a pancake batter-like mixture of slurry and sand. Between coats the shells are suspended in drying racks in environmentally controlled rooms. The process is repeated up to a dozen times, beginning with fine slurry and fine sand to capture surface detail and graduating to coarser coats for strength
A limited edition is created when a finite number of reproductions are made from a single master image. These editions usually bear numbers or markings to indicate the maximum number of allowable prints. All images in the limited edition are generally hand-signed in graphite by the artist and numbered. This signifies the artist's approval of all aspects of the creation and quality of the image, including execution and production techniques of the master and proofs. The image on the master also exists as an original painting or sculpture. The printer and / or casting foundry are asked to destroy the master plates and casting molds so no other proofs or editions can be created.
Lost Wax Process
(Cire Perdue) A casting wax process using a wax model that is encased in a molding material, such as sand or plaster, then melted away, leaving a hollow mold into which the molten metal is poured.
Any particular material used by an artist: oil paint, clay, ink, pastel, wood, concrete, or bronze
A mold allows wax replicas to be made of an original clay sculpture and makes possible the casting of limited editions. To construct the mold, a molding compound is painted or troweled onto the original and built up until it is a thickness that is durable yet retaining flexibility. Molds are usually made of flexible rubber or silicone and can be used for the entire limited edition. A rigid support of plaster or fiberglass called the mother mold is built over the finished rubber mold. The outer mold helps the rubber retain its shape and position and allows the mold to be handled.
Refers to works considered to be authentic examples of the works of an artist or epoch, rather than reproductions or imitations.
A patina is a chemical coating that adds a colorful finish to metal sculpture. This is a particularly effective treatment for bronze, which can be given a wide variety of attractive green, brown, blue, and black patinas. Natural patinas, like the creative element of fine art, have a degree of serendipity. That is probably why artists and collectors for 500 years have cherished works of art with rich and deep patinas that developed over time. Art consultants may not be able to predict with exactness the rate which natural patinas develop but they can be knowledgeable about the factors that contribute to change: atmosphere, temperature and humidity.
A reproduction made from a single master image
Wax replicas (called wax patterns) of an original clay sculpture are made by filling a mold with liquefied hot wax then rotating the mold until all cavities are filled. Next the wax is poured out, leaving a thin skin on the interior of the mold, one-eighth inch to three-sixteenth inches thick. When the mold is pulled away, a hollow wax replica of the original artwork is revealed. The hollow wax patterns are tooled to correct all wax pouring imperfections, refined details, and smooth surfaces. The artist will sometimes oversee the work of the artisans in this stage.
Larger sculptures are often cast in a number of sections then reassembled by welding the pieces together. The welds are ground down and textured to match the surrounding surfaces making the seams unnoticeable. In the finishing stage, artisans and metal workers use a variety of hand and power tools to achieve or refine final surfaces and accentuate textures.